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Climate technology cooperation

The first step to a sustainable future for humanity, 'The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)'

The UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) on climate change adapted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June, 1992 is an international convention created to reduce global warming caused by greenhouse gases. The 197 parties of this convention composed of advanced nations (Annex I and II) and developing countries (Non-annex I) pledged to reduce greenhouse gases according to their individual capacities according to CBDR (Common But Differentiated Responsibilities)
The purpose of the UNFCCC is to restrict the emissions of six greenhouse gases in the air including carbon dioxide to prevent global warming. It was significant in that it defined the problem of “climate change” and achieved an international agreement to stabilize greenhouse gas density to a level that can prevent changes in the climate system caused by greenhouse gases

  • 1Recognized that there was a problem.
  • 2Set a lofty but specific goal.
  • 3The idea is that, as they are the source of most past and current greenhouse gas emissions, industrialized countries are expected to do the most to cut emissions on home ground.
  • 4Continuously track and report the results of each nation’s climate change response activities.
  • 5Ensure “sustainable development” of all countries.

※Source: UNFCCC website (UNFCCC website, 2018)

The Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement

Under the general framework of the UNFCCC adopted in 1992, the international climate change governance can be divided into two main ‘systems.’ The first is the Kyoto System based on the Kyoto Protocol adopted at the 1997 UNFCCC COP3 (Conference of the Parties). The second is based on the Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP21, and it is the new climate system that determines international climate change behavior from 2020. The Paris Agreement became effective as of November 4, 2016.


[Table] Comparison of Paris Agreement and Kyoto Protocol

※Source: Ministry of Environment, 2016


The Paris Agreement that sets off the new climate system is composed of six main elements. First, “mitigation” and “adaptation” are set as the goals, and “finance,” “technological development and transfer,” and “capacity building” are set as the implementation tools to achieve these goals. “Transparency” is commonly applied to all remaining five elements, stressing the need to maintain procedural transparency in all processes. The Technology Mechanism established in 2010 under the UNFCCC for “technological development and transfer” was determined to be the implementer of “technological development and transfer” of the Paris Agreement. In addition, the Financial Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol was decided to play the role of the financial mechanism of the Paris Agreement.

New climate system components

New climate system components

Technology Mechanism

The Technology Mechanism was organized to support the smooth implementation of the development and transfer of climate technologies among the UNFCCC parties. The Technology Mechanism is composed of the TEC (Technology Executive Committee) in charge of climate technology policies and the CTCN (Climate Technology Centre & Network) in charge of implementation, such as technology transfer activities to developing countries.

Components of a technical mechanism

Components of a technical mechanism

The TEC and CTCN cooperate to strengthen climate technology behavior, and the relationship of these two organizations is complementary.
The CTCN acts as the communication channel for technology development and transfer for each nation while conducting major operations, and it is connected with the NDE (National Designated Entity) to respond to and support requests related to technology.

Financial Mechanism

Technical mechanisms have been established to facilitate the smooth implementation of the development and transfer of climate technology between the parties to the UNFCCC. The technical mechanism consists of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) responsible for climate technology policy and the Climate Technology Center & Network (CTCN) responsible for the implementation of climate technology transfer activities to developing countries.

재정메커니즘 조직도

The Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC is composed of the GEF (Global Environmental Facility), SCCF, (Special Climate Change Fund) of the GEF, LDCF (Least Developed Countries Fund), GCF (Green Climate Fund), and Adaptation Fund. It is designed to not only reduce, adapt, and enhance capacities to respond to the climate change of developing countries, but also to provide financial resources for costs related to technology development and transfer. Among them, the GCF was newly established as the operating body of the Financial Mechanism at the 16th COP (Conference of the Parties) in 2010 and began actual operations in 2015.